Arterial blood pressure is necessary for sufficient circulation and perfusion of tissues with blood. Elevated pressure – hypertension-is a public health problem with some 20% of the population suffering from this disease. Hypertension has no specific symptoms and often goes undetected but it is associated with a significantly elevated risk for serious long term consequences if untreated: Stroke, myocardial infarction. Heart failure, kidney failure and accelerated atherosclerosis. A significant part of cases are unaware of the disease, amongst those aware, only about 50% are treated and of these, a significant proportion is not treated sufficiently. The vast majority of cases are of unknown cause (“essential hypertension”) while few percent are caused by a primary disease, often localized in the kidneys or adrenals. Treatment is therefore empirical and rests on different classes of drugs. The talk will provide some background information on normal blood pressure regulation; on hypertension and its treatment and show examples of ongoing research that explores mechanisms of hypertension in e.g. diabetes and kidney disease.